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Definitions for photography

Ambrotype-Is a photographic process that creates a positive photographic image on a sheet of glass using the wet plate collodion process

Calotype—introduced in 1841 by Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide.

Camera Lucida- is an optical device that performs an optical superimposition of the subject being viewed upon the surface upon which the artist is drawing

Camera Obscura- is an optical device that can be as large as a room, or as small as a box. It is constructed to be a dark area, in which a small hole is cut out from one of the walls allowing light to enter. The entering light then is projected on the opposing wall. The projected image is inverted, and can be more focused or less focused depending on how small or large the hole maybe

Collodion process-Is an early photographic process, which was replaced at the end of the 19th century with dry plates - glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin.

Cyanotype- is a photographic printing process using two chemicals, Ammonium iron(III) citrate and Potassium ferricyanide, that gives a cyan-blue print. The English scientist and astronomer Sir John Herschel discovered this procedure in 1842. Even though John Herschel is perhaps the inventor of the cyanotype process, Anna Atkins actually brought this to photography.

Daguerreotype- developed by Louis Daguerre, in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor

Heliography (in French, héliographie) is the photographic process invented by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce around 1825. The process used bitumen, as a coating on glass or metal, which hardened in relation to exposure to light. When the plate was washed with oil of lavender, only the hardened image area remained.

HeliotypeA photomechanically produced plate for pictures or type made by exposing a gelatin film under a negative, hardening it with chrome alum, and printing directly from it.

photogram (ryograph) is a photographic image made without a camera by placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light.

Pinhole Camera- is a very simple camera with no lens and a single very small aperture.

Stereograph- An optical instrument called a stereoscope enables a person to view two-dimensional images so that they appear to exist in three-dimensional space. Stereoscopes are based on binocular vision, in which the left eye and the right eye view an object from slightly different angles. In the brain these separate perceptions of the two eyes are combined and interpreted in terms of depth.

View camera is a type of camera first developed in the era of the Daguerreotype[1] and still in use today, though with many refinements. It comprises a flexible bellows which forms a light-tight seal between two adjustable standards, one of which holds a lens, and the other a viewfinder or a photographic film holder.

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